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This literature review identifies the environmental problems of modern agriculture system. Available evidence suggest that there are multiple pathways through which agricultural output can be enhanced including applications of pesticides, fertilizers and other innovative techniques. Effect of modern Agricultural practices is defined in several ways throughout the literature, including as application of pesticides, high yielding seeds, irrigation system, new farming pattern and modern technology.  It has argued that natural systems and biodiversity are the platform for agriculture crop production and discusses the relationship between sustainable agriculture and food security, water security and climate change. Development of agriculture requires new approaches to modern technology, pesticides, water use strategy and sustaining ecosystem services, which underpin agriculture and food security. It is also critical to address unsustainable consumption and production patterns. Any food and farming strategy should ultimately be based on securing the basic human needs of adequate food and good health, and on reducing the global environmental impacts of the food we produce and consume.

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